Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital (from birth) heart disease (CHD) is a common heart disease, affecting eight in one thousand infants born each year. There are many different types of CHD. 


There are many types of congenital heart defects and they sometimes occur in combination. Some of these defects include:
Where there’s a hole between 2 of the heart’s chambers
Where the pulmonary valve, which controls the flow of blood out of the lower right chamber of the heart to the lungs, is narrower than normal
Coarctation of the Aorta
Where the main large artery of the body, called the aorta, is narrower than normal
Transposition of the Great Arteries

Where the pulmonary and aortic valves and the arteries have swapped positions

Patent Ductus Arteriosus
As a baby develops, a vessel
called the ductus arteriosus connects the
pulmonary artery directly to the aorta. This diverts blood away from the foetal lungs to the aorta. A PDA is where this connection doesn’t close after birth. This means that extra blood is pumped into the lungs, forcing the heart & lungs to work hard.